About Yıldırım Beyazıt
About Sultan Yıldırım Beyazıd Han
The fourth Sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, Sultan Beyazıd was born in 1360. Her mother is Gülçiçek Hatun. Sultan Beyazıd who received a good education since his childhood, He was in Kütahya province as a governer when he was a Şehzade (a Turkish term like prince). He crusaded at Kosova War with his father Sultan Murad I and ascended to the throne after his father, Murad Hudavendigar’s falling martyrin the war. (1389)
He spent the first year of his reign (1389-1395) in struggle with seizing the beyliks (small states) in the Anatolia territory such as Aydınoğulları, Saruhanoğulları, Germiyanoğulları, Menteşeoğulları, and Hamidoğulları. Bayezıd assigned the governors to these principalities. Then he tended towards the Balkans neglected during his struggles in Anatolia. It was not difficult to conquer the local states in struggle with themselves. Niğbolu Combat that took place in that period (1396) witnessed the failure of Crusader Army consisting of the strongest knights of Europe. Victory of Niğbolu not only reinforced the sovereignty of Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, but also increased the reputation of Sultan Beyazıd in Islamic world. After this victory, Beyazıd has been started to be called as “Sultan” and a great deal of people from countries which are in chaos such as Persia and Iraq immigrated to be subjected to Sultan Beyazıd.
In 1399 Beyazıd returned to Anatolia and established a central empire ranging from Taurus Mountains to River Tuna violating territories of the principalities of Karamanoğlu and Kadı Burhaneddin.
Meanwhile Timur (1335-1405) who established a strong empire ranging from Central Asia to Persia had annihilated the successors of the dynasties such as Çağatay, Harzemşah and İlhanlı before he set foot on Anatolian territory. For this reason, he was regarded as the successor of these dynasties. In 1400, Timur also confiscated the capital of Kadı Burhanettin Dynasty, Sivas taking place in Anatolia. Thereupon, Turkmen rulers took side with Timur.
It was inevitable for Beyazıd and Timur to come across. Although these two rulers have different objectives concerning being the leader of Turkish world, they became obliged to fight with each other.
The two sides encountered at Çubuk plain nearby Ankara in 27th of August in 1402. Timur’s army which had geographical advantage was more crowded. Although he had superiority at the beginning of the war, Beyazıd was defeated since reserves of Turkmen rulers and Serbian vassals took side with Timur. Ottoman army was beaten and Beyazıd was captured. Sultan Beyazıd died in 9th of March in 1403 together with his two sons Şehzade Musa and Şehzade Mustafa who were sent to an exile to the town of Akşehir with him.
Bayezid succeeded to the throne with the support of the ingathering people against Şehzade Yakup. Bayezid’s reign revived ingathering system and the young Christians were trained as both as a soldier and an Ottoman and governer. In addition to this, his marriage to a the daugher of Prince of Serbia, his relatively good relations with European principalities gave way to his being reputed as being influenced by ingathering people.
The primary objective of Beyazid was to conquer İstanbul. With this purpose, he built Anatolain Fortress nearby the Bosphorous. Although he sieged İstanbul three times, he failed due to the threats both from the east and West and the inadequacies and the influence of foreign consultants.
Beyazıd made reforms in the expansion of central budget and significant bureaucratic innovations. The first resources of composition date back to this period. Many foundation goods belonging to ulema were assigned to the government and vassal system in administration was started to be practiced. It is reported that Beyazıd punished the kadıs (Muslim judges) who abuse their duties severely.
Sultan Beyazıd was known as a quite successful soldier and executive. As he acted quite rapidly in his decisions concerning the enemies surrounding him and his manoeuvres he takes, he is called as “Thunderbolt”.
1-İnalcık, Halil. (2008), Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Klasik Çağ (1300–1600).YKY; İstanbul, 2008, p. 21-22.
2- İnalcık, Halil. Osmanlı’da Devlet, Hukuk, Adalet. Eren; İstanbul, 2000, p.31
3- Shaw, Standford. Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. E Publications; İstanbul, 1982, p. 54–62.
Note: The name of Sultan Thunderbolt Beyazıd is narrated as “Sultan Beyazıd Han”. It is observed that this name is cited with different ways both in the academic studies and among the public. Among these ciations “Thounder Beyazıd” and “Thunder Beyezıd” are the most common ones.
Among these citations the one “Yıldırım Beyazıt” was given as the name to many institutions foundations and places and thus adapted not only in official resources, but also among the public. Since his name is cited as “Yıldırım Beyazıt” in the regulation of establishment of the university, this citation is used in our website and correspondence.